("Amps.") A measure of electrical current. In incandescent lamps, the current is related to voltage and power as follows: Current (Amps) = Power (Watts) / Voltage (Volts).
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A consensus organisation which coordinates voluntary standards for the physical, electrical and performance characteristics of lamps, ballasts, luminaries and other lighting and electrical equipment.
An auxiliary piece of equipment designed to start and to properly control the flow of power to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps.
The angular dimension of the cone of light from reflector lamps, encompassing the central part of the beam out to the angle where the intensity is 50% of maximum. The beam angle sometimes called "beam spread", is often part of the ordering code for reflector lamps.
British Standard (BS)
British Standards are produced by BSI British Standards, a division of BSI Group that is incorporated under a Royal Charter and is formally designated as the National Standards Body (NSB) for the UK.
The international unit (SI) of luminous intensity. The term has been retained from the early days of lighting when a standard candle of a fixed size and composition was used as a basis for evaluating the intensity of other light sources. Sometimes the term "candle power" is used to describe the relative intensity of a source.
Luminous intensity expressed in candelas. Plots of luminous intensity, called candlepower distribution curves, are used to indicate the intensity distribution characteristics of reflector-type lamps. A measure of intensity mathematically related to lumens. Candlepower is often to measure the intensity of lamps that project light.
Also called Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT). Chromaticity tells you what the lamp itself or a neutral surface illuminated by a lamp will look like. Chromaticity sets the "tone" or atmosphere of a room: warm, cool or something in between. Chromaticity is usually measured in Kelvins. It can also be defined by using x and y coordinated against a standard chromaticity scale developed by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).
Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT)
Also called Chromaticity. CCT tells you what the lamp itself or a neutral surface illuminated by a lamp will look like. CCT sets the "tone" or atmosphere of a room: warm, cool or something in between. CCT is usually measured in Kelvins. It can also be defined by using x and y coordinated against a standard chromaticity scale developed by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).
Colour Rendering Index (CRI)
An international system used to rate a lamp's ability to render object colours. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale), the better colours appear, CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are also rated for the same chromaticity or colour temperature. A measurement of the colour shift an object undergoes when illuminated by the light source, as compared to a reference source at the same colour temperature. Colour rendering is measured on an index from 0-100, with natural daylight equal to 100.
Originally, a term used to describe the "whiteness" of incandescent lamp light. Colour temperature is directly related to the physical temperature of the filament in incandescent lamps so the Kelvin (absolute) temperature scale is used to describe colour temperature. For discharge lamps where no hot filament is involved, the term "correlated colour temperature" is used to indicate that the light appears as if the discharge lamp is operating at a given colour temperature. More recently, the term "chromaticity" has been used in place of colour temperature. Chromaticity" has been used in place of colour temperature. Typical colour temperatures are 2800K (incandescent), 3000K (halogen), 4100K (cool white or SP41 fluorescent), and 5000K (daylight-simulating fluorescent colours.
Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)
The general term applied to families of smaller diameter fluorescent lamps, some of which have built in ballasts and bayonet or screw-in bases for easy replacement of incandescent lamps, others utilise a remote ballast in the same format as a linear fluorescent lamp.
Compact Fluorescent Lamp integrated (CFLi)
The general term applied to families of smaller diameter fluorescent lamps which have built in ballasts and bayonet/ screw-in/pin-ended bases for easy replacement of incandescent and halogen lamps.
Compact Fluorescent Lamp non-integrated (CFLni)
The general term applied to families of smaller diameter fluorescent lamps with curved glass tubes which operate by means of a remote ballasts and in some cases, an ignitor.
Efficacy is the rate at which a lamp is able to convert electrical power (Watts) into light (Lumens), expressed in terms of lumens per watt (Lm/W). Put simply, a watt or electricity is the amount of power in and a lumen or light is the amount of power out. Efficacy is a critical consideration when evaluating a lamp because lighting represents 30 to 50% of the total operating cost of a typical installation and can affect related costs such as air conditioning. Secondly, energy accounts for 86% of the cost of an average lighting investment (maintenance accounts for 11%; the lighting itself, 3%) and has a major impact on operating costs. And finally, a lighting system that uses energy efficiently is beneficial to the environment.
A continuum of electric and magnetic radiation that can be characterized by wavelength or frequency. Visible light encompasses a small part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the region from about 380 nanometres (violet) to 770 nanometres (red) by wavelength.
A short name for a fluorescent high frequency electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts use solid state electronic components and typically operate fluorescent lamps at frequencies in the range of 25-35 kHz. The benefits are: increased lamp efficacy, reduced ballast losses and lighter, smaller ballasts compared to electromagnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts may also be used with HID lamps, but the circuits are quite different, there are few designs at present and only minor lamp efficacy improvements result.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation (CENELEC)
CENELEC is a non-profit technical organization composed of the National Electrotechnical Committees of 30 European countries. In addition, 8 National Committees from neighbouring countries are participating in CENELEC work with an Affiliate status. CENELEC’s mission is to prepare voluntary electrotechnical standards that help develop the Single European Market/European Economic Area for electrical and electronic goods and services removing barriers to trade, creating new markets and cutting compliance costs.
European Committee for Standardisation (CEN)
The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) is a business facilitator in Europe, removing trade barriers for European industry and consumers. Its mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment. Through its services it provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical specifications.
Euro Norm (EN)
CEN's 30 National Members work together to develop voluntary European Standards (ENs). These standards have a unique status, since they also are national standards in each of its 30 Member countries. With one common standard in all these countries, and every conflicting national standard withdrawn, a product can reach a far wider market with much lower development and testing costs. ENs help build a European Internal Market for goods and services and to position Europe in the global economy. Standards issued by CEN/CENELEC are normally prefixed by the national issuing body e.g. BS EN
A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through low pressure mercury vapour to produce ultraviolet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.
A short name for the tungsten-halogen lamp. Halogen lamps are high pressure incandescent lamps containing halogen gases such as iodine or bromine which allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. At high-temperatures, chemical reaction involving tungsten and the halogen gas recycles evaporated particles of tungsten back onto the filament surface.
High-Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp
A general term for mercury, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps. HID lamps contain compact arc tubes which enclose various gases and metal salts operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.
The "density" of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface. Illuminance is measured in lumens/metre2 or lux.
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A light source which generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it.
Infrared radiation (IR)
Electromagnetic energy radiated in the wavelength range of about 770 to 1106 nanometres. Energy in this range cannot be seen by the human eye, but can be sensed as heat by the skin.
A type of fluorescent lamp-ballast circuit designed to start fluorescent lamps as soon as the power is applied. Originally, instant-start circuits were developed to eliminate separate mechanical starter devices. Slimline fluorescent lamps operate only on instant start circuits.
International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world's largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 159 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system. ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of society.
A measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.
Kilowatt Hour (kWh)
The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or 1 kilowatt-hour. If the energy company charge £0.10/kWh, then the electricity cost for the 10 hours of operation would be 10 pence (1 x £0.10).
The term used to refer to the complete light source package including the inner parts as well as the outer bulb or tube. "Lamp", of course, is also commonly used to refer to a type of small light fixtures such as a table lamp.
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
An LED or light-emitting diode is a small semiconductor device which emits light, usually coloured, when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are energy saving and have a long service life.
Radiant energy which can be sensed or seen by the human eye. Visible light is measured in lumens. The term generally applied to the visible energy from a source. Light is usually measured in lumens or candlepower. When light strikes a surface, it is either absorbed, reflected or transmitted. Light is said to travel in straight lines.
Light Output Ratio (LOR)
The ratio between the light output of the lamp and the luminaire. LOR = Luminaire Output / Lamp Output in Lumens
The basic unit of measurement for light. Luminous flux describes the total quantity of light emitted by a light source, both visible and non-visible. The unit of measurement is Lumens (lm). Typically used for measuring non-reflector lamps such as linear fluorescent, compact fluorescent, HiD, Halogen capsules and LEDs.
The SI (International System) unit of illumination: one lumen uniformly distributed over an area of one square meter.
Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED)
A Large area light source, where electrical energy is converted into light energy within a solid state environment (not gas or liquid). Devices constructed with low molecular weight organic molecules deposited by thermal evaporation, sandwiched between two metallic electrodes. Typically up to 16 organic layers are sandwiched between the electrodes. When driven at low DC voltages these devices emit light across the visible spectrum, including white. Presently made on glass substrates but much research being conducted on suitable flexible plastic substrates.
Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR)
A type of reflector lamp, either incandescent or halogen.
Polymer Light Emitting Diode (PLED)
A Large emissive area light source, where electrical energy is converted into light energy within a solid state environment (not gas or liquid). Devices constructed with high molecular weight polymers which are deposited by printing methods at atmospheric pressure, in a clean-room environment. Typically only 3 organic layers are required for the emission of white light. A single polymer which emits white light is key to this technology. These sources emit no UV or IR energy.
Printed Circuit Board (PCB)
A Printed Circuit Board (PCB) would typically be used to mount LEDs or within electronic of ballasts and integrated Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
Solid State Lighting (SSL)
The term Solid State Lighting (SSL) is typically used to describe LED lighting where the light is created on a solid state PCB.
Transformers reduce the line voltage (for instance 230 V) to the lower voltage required for operating low-voltage halogen lamps. This will generally be 12 V.
A measurement of the electromotive force in an electrical circuit or device expressed in volts. Voltage can be thought of as being analogous to the pressure in a waterline.
A unit of electrical power. Lamps are rated in watts to indicate their power consumption. Power consumed over time equals the electrical energy used.
Radiant energy in the range of about 100-380 nanometre (NM). Light that is shorter in wavelength and higher in frequency than visible violet light.
LIF TECHNICAL STATEMENTS
There are a considerable number of EU Directives, Standards and Guides which are influencing the development of the lighting market. Manufacturers and Stakeholders need to invest in their development and monitoring. These influencing factors provide opportunities for market exploitation and drive growth and business opportunities. LIF members and staff participate in the drafting and revision of International, European and British Standards and participate in schemes for independent assurance of quality. LIF can provide full details of the standards - for more information and costs, please contact Christina Brooks firstname.lastname@example.org.
In many instances modern lighting product standards and revisions are drafted by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and parallel-voted both internationally and in Europe (CENELEC). This has accelerated the process of publishing new standards and revising/updating existing standards. This has allowed BSI standards to also have enhanced publication/revision capability and the adoption by IEC of the 5 digit standard number used by CENELEC has simplified the cross referencing of relevant international, regional and national standards.
The following table highlights the key organizations and their authority/responsibility:
Note 1: World standards are offered for voluntary for adoption by member
Note 2: Member national standards institutes must publish all CEN and CENELEC standards and remove any conflicting national standard
CEN Lighting Application Standards
CIE guides - these supplement the standards
CIE 97.2 - Maintenance of indoor electric lighting systems
CIE 99 - Lighting education
CIE 103 - Technical collection, industry, economics, colour, erythema, maintained E
CIE 106 - Collection UV impact - photobiology, photochemistry, lighting for plants
CIE 117 - Discomfort glare in interior lighting - UGR
CIE 139 - Collection of SAD effects
CIE 150 - Obtrusive light
CIE 154 - Maintenance of outdoor electric lighting systems
There are also CIE guides on indoor, roads, tunnels, sports, etc. lighting needs
EU Directives relevant to lighting
There are numerous European Union Laws which impact on the UK lighting market. But how are they implemented? They are...
The following table details the key EU Standards and their Abbreviations.
|Abbreviation||Title and objective|
|CE mark||A mark that acts as a passport for the product to place on to EU market demands mark and conformity to all relevant directives (these are not listed) manufacturer self declaration of conformity (except medical and gas appliances that require 3rd party certification)|
|LVD||Low Voltage directive for selling safe products demands proof on electrical safety, can be satisfied by tests to EN 60598 updating under consideration but resisted by lobby groups|
|GPSD||General Product Safety directive for products in service demands life test and information (up to 10 years liability)|
|EMC||ElectroMagnetic Compatibility directive for limiting electrical and magnetic interference and adequate capacity for immunity(rejection) demands conduction, emitting (E and M) and immunity testing|
|CPD||Construction Product directive safety in building/services design and build applies to first fix products, emergency lighting|
|WEEE||Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive. Place crossed-out wheeled bin symbol on product to show new waste. Producer responsibility for end of life collection, treatment, recycling, disposal, financing of product.|
|RoHS||Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive Limits or bans the amount of hazardous substance used in products. Producer responsible to measure and calculate the weight ratio. Require registration for handling excess amounts|
|BaA||Battery and Accumulator directive. Restricts the use and disposal of cadmium and lead cell devices. Require licensed end of life collection and rehandling|
|EELP||Energy Efficiency Labelling of Product directive Add energy class label to product (fluorescent lamp and ballast)|
|EPB||Energy Efficiency Labelling of Product directive Add energy class label to product (fluorescent lamp and ballast)|
|EuP||Ecodesign of Energy-using Products directive. Aim to reduce the consumption of natural resources and energy and minimise environmental impacts of products across the whole of their life cycle. Practice ecodesign, give instruction on use, limit stand-by devices. Assessment of impact and supporting standards in progress|
Tungsten filament lamps
- BS EN 60432-1: Safety specification for incandescent lamps. Tungsten filament lamps for domestic and similar general lighting purposes.
- BS EN 60432-2:2000: Incandescent lamps. Safety specifications. Tungsten halogen lamps for domestic and similar general lighting purposes
- BS EN 60432-3:2003: Incandescent lamps. Safety specifications. Tungsten-halogen lamps (non-vehicle)
- BS EN 60064: Tungsten filament lamps for domestic and similar general lighting purposes - Performance requirements
- BS EN 60357: Tungsten halogen lamps (non-vehicle) - Performance specifications
- BS EN 50285: Energy efficiency of electric lamps for household use – Measurement Methods
- BS EN 60809: Lamps for road vehicles. Dimensional, electrical and luminous requirements
- BS EN 60810: Lamps for road vehicles. Performance requirements
DOUBLE CAPPED FLUORESCENT LAMPS
- BS EN 61195: Double-capped fluorescent lamps. Safety specifications
- BS EN 60081 : Double-capped fluorescent lamps - Performance specifications
SINGLE CAPPED FLUORESCENT LAMPS
- BS EN 61199: Single-capped fluorescent lamps. Safety specifications
- BS EN 60901: Single-capped fluorescent lamps – Performance specifications
SELF BALLASTED LAMPS
- BS EN 60968: Specification for self-ballasted lamps for general lighting services. Safety requirements
- BS EN 60969 : Self-ballasted lamps for general lighting services – Performance requirements
HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMPS
- BS EN 62035: Discharge lamps (excluding fluorescent lamps). Safety specifications
- BS EN 60188: High-pressure mercury vapour lamps. Performance specifications
- BS EN 60192: Low pressure sodium vapour lamps. Performance specification
- BS EN 60662: Specification for high-pressure sodium vapour lamps
- BS EN 61167: Specification for metal halide lamps
- IEC60598 (Luminaire requirements)
- IEC62031: 09/2008 (LED Modules for General Lighting – Safety Specifcations)
- IECXXXXX (LED Module for General Lighting - Performance
- IEC62560:(Lamps - Safety standard for self-ballasted LED lamps)
- IEC62612 (DRAFT) (Lamps – Self Ballasted LED-Lamps for general lighting service > 50V – Performance): 34A/1318/PAS (replaces PRESCO(RTK)075 17th version and also issued as NP)
- IEC61341(Measurement – Intensity & Angle)
- IEC61231 (ILCOS)
- IEC62504 (LED Terms & Definitions)
- IEC60061 (Lamp Caps)
- IEC60838-2-2(Connectors for LED-modules)
- IEC61347 (Control Gear & AC-DC Systems– Safety)
- IEC62384 (Control Gear – Performance)
- CIE Div 2 2007 Publication CIE127 (Methods of measurement)
- CIE Div 6 / IEC62471 Photobiological safety / Optical radiation
- EN 13032-1 (2004), Lighting applications — Measurement and presentation of photometric data of lamps and luminaires — Part 1: Measurement and file format
- BS EN 13032-2(2004): Light and lighting. Measurement and presentation of photometric data of lamps and luminaires. Part 2: Presentation of data for indoor and outdoor work places
Safety and Performance Standards
Lamp type – Conformity standard
||Safety – EN 61195||Performance – EN 60081|
|Compact fluorescent||Safety – EN 61199||Performance – EN 60901|
|High pressure sodium||Safety – EN 62035||Performance – EN 60662|
||Safety – EN 62035||Performance – EN 61167|
Control gear standards
|TYPE of gear|| Safety
|Fluorescent||EN 61347||EN 60929|
|HID||EN 60922||EN 60923|
|Starting device||EN 61347||EN 60927|
EN 60598 parts 1 and 2
Road light columns
BERR (Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform)
BSI (British Standards Institute)
CELMA (Feferation of National Manufacturers Associations for Luminaires and Electro Technical Components in the European Union)
DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)
EST (Energy Saving Trust)
ECA (Enhanced Capital Allowances)
ELC (European Lamp Companies Federation)
Europa (Gateway to the European Union)Lamptech
Lighting Industry Federation
LA (Lighting Association)
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